Stay updated about coronavirus drug and vaccine research and access COVID-19 clinical trial information distilled from credible sources.
HCQ and CQ are both currently under investigation to treat COVID-19. The drugs are formerly approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat or prevent malaria. HCQ is also known to treat autoimmune conditions, like chronic discoid lupus erythematosus, systemic lupus erythematosus in adults, and rheumatoid arthritis. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the drug has been authorized temporarily for Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) to treat COVID-19 patients only under hospitalized conditions with careful monitering, under non-clinical trial conditions, if participation is not available. Results are mixed. However, there are reports of serious heart rhythm problems in COVID-19 patients causing dangerously rapid heart rate and/or abnormal rhythms, in some cases resulting in death in hospitalized and out-patient settings. The FDA is aware of recent higher prescriptions of HCQ and CQ; as such advising physicians and patients to know the risks. There is currently inconclusive evidence to support the use of Hydroxychloroquine and Chloroquine as a treatment for COVID-19.
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Lopinavir/ritonavir is not a cure for HIV infection, but it helps control the infection and prevents HIV complications (such as cancer) to improve quality of life. The combination of Lopinavir/Ritonavir is currently being explored for its efficacy against COVID-19. However, clinical trials have been conducted in conditions with limited control, affecting reliability and accuracy of results. Gastrointestinal side effects were common in COVID-19 patients treated by LPVr. There is currently inconclusive evidence to support the use of Lopinavir/Ritonavir as a treatment or prevention for COVID-19.
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Remdesivir is under investigation for its efficacy against COVID-19. It has shown some inhibitory effects on pathogenic coronaviruses in animal models, including SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). In small-scale clinical trials, there has not been consistent significant evidence of its efficacy in reduction of recovery time. Other early testing against coronaviruses, including SARS and MERS found some antiviral acitivyt, but as not been approved to treat any forms of coronavirus. There is currently inconclusive evidence to support the use of Remdesivir as a treatment for COVID-19.
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This drug was originally developed as an antiviral agent against Influenza A, B and C. It reduces the severity and time to resolving symptoms caused by the flu. A small scale trial has shown some effectiveness in shortening the duration of symptoms for COVID-19. However, further testing still needs to be done. There is currently inconclusive evidence to support the use of Favipiravir as a treatment for COVID-19.
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Test the agent's (ie. vaccine or drug) safety and toxicity in animals before beginning clinical trials on humans
Administer microdoses of the test agent to see if it behaves in people as expected.
Assess the dosage and safety of the agent in a group of 10 to 100 participants.
Assess the efficacy and monitor the side effects of the agent in 200 to 300 people.
Assess efficacy, effectiveness and safety of the agent in a larger group of 1000 to 3000 people. Once the drug passes Phase III, it may become approved by the country to advance to Phase IV.
Monitor longer term effects of the agent and compare to existing or similar agents in the market. Agents tested in Phase IV have already been approved by the country's regulating body and in the market.